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Why can magnets attract some metals?

by AOMag | post a comment

In fact,magnets attract only a few metals, such as iron, nickel, cobalt and some of their alloys. Most other metals, such as gold, silver, copper, aluminum, tin, lead and titanium, are not attracted by magnets.

The composition of the magnet is iron, cobalt, nickel and other atoms, the internal structure of which is quite special, and it has its own magnetic moment, and the magnet can generate a magnetic field.There are many original magnets with two opposite magnetic poles in iron. When there is no external magnetic field, these original magnets are arranged in disorder, and their magnetic properties cancel each other out, so they do not show magnetism to the outside world.When the iron is close to the magnet, these original magnets are arranged neatly under the action of the magnet, so that one end close to the magnet has the opposite polarity to that of the magnet and attracts each other.This shows that iron can be magnetized by the magnet because of the existence of the original magnet.However, metals such as copper and aluminum have no original magnet structure, so they cannot be attracted by magnets.

From the point of view of atomic current, it is explained that the attraction of iron by magnets is determined by the characteristics of magnets.The magnetic field generated by the current magnetizes other objects, and the magnetized objects generate electric fields. Most of the materials acting on the interaction of electric fields to generate force are composed of molecules, which are composed of atoms, and atoms are composed of nuclei and electrons. Inside the atom, the electrons keep rotating and revolving around the nucleus. Both movements of electrons will produce magnetism. However, in most substances, the direction of electron movement is different and chaotic, and the magnetic effects cancel each other out. Therefore, most substances do not exhibit magnetism under normal conditions.

Ferromagnetic materials such as iron, cobalt, nickel or ferrite are different, and their internal electron spins can be arranged spontaneously in a small range to form a spontaneous magnetization area, which is called magnetic domain. After ferromagnetic materials are magnetized, the internal magnetic domains are arranged neatly and in the same direction, which strengthens the magnetism and constitutes a magnet. The process of attracting iron by a magnet is the process of magnetizing the iron block. The magnetized iron block and the magnet have attractive force between different polarities, and the iron block is firmly "stuck" with the magnet.

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